Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Key Events of Feminism During the 1960s in the U.S.

Key Events of Feminism During the 1960s in the U.S. 1960 May 9: The Food and Drug Administration approved the first oral contraceptive, commonly known as the Pill, for sale as birth control in the United States. 1961 November 1: Women Strike for Peace, founded by Bella Abzug and Dagmar Wilson, drew 50,000 women nationwide to protest nuclear weapons and U.S. involvement in war in southeast Asia.December 14: President John F. Kennedy issued an executive order establishing the Presidents Commission on the Status of Women. He appointed former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt to chair the commission. 1962 Sherri Finkbine traveled to Sweden for an abortion after learning that Thalidomide, a tranquilizer drug she had taken, caused extensive deformities to the fetus. 1963 February 17:  The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan was published.May 23: Anne Moody, who later wrote Coming of Age in Mississippi, participated in a Woolworths lunch counter sit-in.June 10: The Equal Pay Act of 1963 was signed into law by President John F. Kennedy.June 16: Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman in outer space, another Soviet first in the U.S.-U.S.S.R. space race. 1964 U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, including the Title VII prohibition of discrimination based on sex by private employers including employment agencies and unions. 1965 In Griswold v. Connecticut, the Supreme Court struck down a law restricting access to contraception for married couples.The Newark Museum exhibit Women Artists of America: 1707-1964 looked at womens art, often neglected in the art world.Barbara Castle becomes the first UK female minister of state, appointed to become the Minister of Transport.July 2: The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission began operations.December: Pauli Murray and Mary Eastwood published Jane Crow and the Law: Sex Discrimination and Title VII in the George Washington Law Review. 1966 The National Organization for Women, known as NOW, was founded.NOW set up task forces to work on key womens issues.Marlo Thomas began starring in the television sitcom That Girl, about a young, independent, single career woman. 1967 President Johnson amended Executive Order 11246, which dealt with affirmative action, to include sex discrimination on the list of prohibited employment discrimination.The feminist group New York Radical Women formed in New York City.June: Naomi Weisstein and Heath Booth held a free school at the University of Chicago on womens issues.  Jo Freeman was among the attendees and was inspired to organize a womans session at the National Conference of New Politics.  A womans caucus of NCNP formed, and when that was belittled from the floor, a group of women met at Jo Freemans apartment a group that evolved into the Chicago Womens Liberation Union.Jo Freemans newsletter Voice of the womens liberation movement gave a name to the new movement.August: The National Welfare Rights Organization formed in Washington D.C. 1968 NOW formed a special committee to launch a major campaign for the Equal Rights Amendment.Shirley Chisholm became the first African-American woman elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.The Womens Equity Action League broke off from NOW to avoid the controversial issues of sexuality, reproductive choice, and the Equal Rights Amendment.The National Abortion Rights Action League (NARAL) was founded.The National Welfare Rights Organization was founded, with 22,000 members by the next year.Women at the Dagenham (UK) Ford factory stage a strike for equal pay, nearly stopping work at all the UK Ford automobile plants.Women for the first Seattle womens liberation group after a male organizer for SDS at a meeting said that balling a chick together enhanced the political consciousness of poor white young men.  A woman in the audience had called out, And what did it do for the consciousness of the chick?February 23: The EEOC ruled that being female was not a bona fide occupational quali fication of being a flight attendant. September 7: The Miss America Protest by New York Radical Women at the Miss America pageant brought widespread media attention to womens liberation. 1969 The Abortion Counseling Service of Womens Liberation began operating in Chicago under the code name Jane.The radical feminist group Redstockings began in New York.March 21: Redstockings staged an abortion speakout, insisting that womens voices be heard on the issue instead of only male legislators and nuns.May: NOW activists marched in Washington D.C. for Mothers Day, demanding Rights, Not Roses.

Monday, March 2, 2020

A Brief History of Women in Higher Education

A Brief History of Women in Higher Education While more women than men have attended college in the U.S. since the late 1970s, female students were largely prevented from pursuing higher education until the 19th century. Before then, female seminaries were the primary alternative for women who wished to earn a higher degree. But women’s rights activists fought for higher education for female students, and college campuses turned out to be fertile ground for gender equality activism. Female Grads During the 17th and 18th Centuries Before the formal desegregation of mens and womens higher education, a small number of women graduated from universities. Most were from wealthy or well-educated families, and the oldest examples of such women can be found in Europe. Juliana Morell earned a law doctorate in Spain in 1608.Anna Maria van Schurman attended the university at Utrecht, Netherlands, in 1636.Ursula Agricola and Maria Jonae Palmgren were admitted to college in Sweden in 1644.Elena Cornaro Piscopia earned a doctor of philosophy degree at the University of Padua, Italy, in 1678.Laura Bassi earned a doctor of philosophy degree at the University of Bologna, Italy, in 1732, and then became the first woman to teach in an official capacity at any European University.Cristina Roccati received a university degree in Italy in 1751.Aurora Liljenroth graduated from college in Sweden in 1788, the first woman to do so. U.S. Seminaries Educated Women in the 1700s In 1742, the Bethlehem Female Seminary was established in Germantown, Pennsylvania, becoming the first institute of higher education for women in the United States. It was founded by the Countess Benigna von Zinzendorf, daughter of Count Nicholas von Zinzendorf, under his sponsorship. She was only 17 years old at the time.  In 1863, the state officially recognized the institution as a college and the college was then permitted to issue bachelor’s degrees. In 1913, the college was renamed the Moravian Seminary and College for Women, and, later, the institution became co-educational. Thirty years after Bethlehem opened, the Moravian sisters founded Salem College in North Carolina. It since became the Salem Female Academy and is still open today. Womens Higher Ed at the Turn of the 18th Century In 1792, Sarah Pierce founded the Litchfield Female Academy in Connecticut. The Rev. Lyman Beecher (father of Catherine Beecher, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Isabella Beecher Hooker) was among the lecturers at the school, part of the republican motherhood ideological trend. The school focused on educating women so that they could be responsible for raising an educated citizenry. Eleven years after Litchfield was established, Bradford Academy in Bradford, Massachusetts, began admitting women. Fourteen men and 37 women graduated in the first class of students. In 1837, the school changed its focus to only admit women.   Options for Women During the 1820s In 1821, Clinton Female Seminary opened; it would later merge into the Georgia Female College. Two years later, Catharine Beecher founded the Hartford Female Seminary, but the school did not survive beyond the 19th century. Beechers sister, writer Harriet Beecher Stowe, was a student at Hartford Female Seminary and later a teacher there.  Fanny Fern, a children’s author, and newspaper columnist, also graduated from Hartford. Lindon Wood School for Girls was founded in 1827 and continued as Lindenwood University. This was the first school of higher education for women that was located west of the Mississippi. The next year, Zilpah Grant founded Ipswich Academy, with Mary Lyon as an early principal. The purpose of the school was to prepare young women to be missionaries and teachers. The school took the name Ipswich Female Seminary in 1848 and operated until 1876. In 1834, Mary Lyon established the Wheaton Female Seminary in Norton, Massachusetts. She then started the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in South Hadley, Massachusetts, in 1837. Mount Holyoke received a collegiate charter in 1888, and today the schools are known as Wheaton College and Mount Holyoke College. Schools for Female Students During the 1830s Columbia Female Academy opened in 1833. It later became a full college and exists today as Stephens College. Now called Wesleyan, Georgia Female College was created in 1836 specifically so women could earn bachelor’s degrees. The following year, St. Mary’s Hall was founded in New Jersey as a female seminary. It is today a pre-K through high school named Doane Academy. More Inclusive Higher Ed From the 1850s Onward In 1849, Elizabeth Blackwell graduated from Geneva Medical College in Geneva, New York. She was the first woman in America admitted to a medical school and the first in the United States to receive a medical degree. The next year, Lucy Sessions made history when she graduated with a literary degree from Oberlin College in Ohio. She became the First African-American female college graduate. Oberlin was founded in 1833 and admitted four women as full students in 1837.  Only a few years later, more than a third (but less than half) of the student body were women. After Sessions earned her history-making degree from Oberlin, Mary Jane Patterson, in 1862, became the first African-American woman to earn a bachelors degree. Higher education opportunities for women really expanded during the late 1800s. The Ivy League colleges had been solely available to male students, but companion colleges for women, known as the Seven Sisters, were founded from 1837 to 1889.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Communication theory related to a famous song Research Paper

Communication theory related to a famous song - Research Paper Example Songs such as â€Å"Now I’m that Chick† reinforces the complexity of the female psyche and their views on self-identity versus emotions on soured romantic relationships. This song best fits the profile of symbolic interactionism, which is best defined as a direct response that occurs not as a product of their views on another’s personal actions, but on the significance they give to the action itself (uregina.ca, 2000). Under this theory, meaning is created based on the direct social interaction that occurs with others in society and then meaning is further interpreted using various coping strategies or direct emotional outburst; whether negative or positive. Symbolic interactionism describes the various cultural symbols that help to shape both identity and a person’s reaction to various social stimuli (McClelland, 2000) such as the termination or hopeful renewal of what might have been a bad romantic relationship. The social norm for handling this situation might have been reinforced on the individual through various media formats or experience with peer reactions in similar situations and the individual develops their own symbolic meaning about these situations and then applies what they believe to be appropriate action. One line from â€Å"Now I’m that Chick† states, Cause you thought that I was pure as snow, guess you didn’t know, which is a form of self-reinforcement to another party, in this case an old romance, that the individual is emotionally strong and largely defiant. The lyrics seem to point toward the return of an old flame that wants to renew this poor romance and Franc identifies that such a thing would be impossible for her to endure based on the symbolism she attached to the experience. Another line states, Now I’m that Chick, and you’re just a clown, in a further effort to either create her own defense mechanism (a psychological view) or to stab cruelly at the receiver’s

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Discuss Chinese cosmology and its meanings and implications in early Essay

Discuss Chinese cosmology and its meanings and implications in early Chinese political culture - Essay Example These phases also refer to the different applications of reality, including the five directions, the five tastes, smells, colours, viscera and the five classifications of flora and fauna (Faure, 2005). Such general theme applies a suspension of thought with everything having its place and each place having a corresponding value. In effect, to find something means discovering and controlling it. These elements of cosmology will be discussed based on its meanings and implications in early Chinese political culture. A general background of Chinese cosmology will first be established, and then followed by more specific discussions on political culture during the early Chinese period. Body Chinese cosmology is based on the concept of cosmic order, which is the foundation of all existence, and also the primary rule in all cosmic relations and developments. The universe is therefore considered a self-contained and dynamic object operating based on its basic pattern. Such pattern has often b een considered as Dao by Chinese philosophers (Liu, 2006). This Dao has various interrelated elements. The term â€Å"way† has been related to â€Å"path† or â€Å"road† (Liu, 2006). Way is therefore related to the proper or the right way of acting or doing something or in another sense, the proper order which emanates in doing something right. Dao implies an all encompassing entelechy, a life-sustaining force supporting the creation of various things (Liu, 2006). Dao in effect, covers the whole cosmos from its birth or creation. Moreover, Dao refers to cosmic order and in some ways, is considered the truth or reality. Within the holistic cosmic understanding, this cosmic order covers majority of human relations and affairs (Liu, 2006). In effect, Dao includes a moral implication, being the proper way of states taking part in the human world. As Dao is considered the â€Å"right way,† it also represents the way which should be taken by individuals. In the more overreaching sense, Dao represents the highest moral standard for humans. Qi is also another element of Chinese cosmology, very much relating to the concept of Dao. There is no definite English translation for qi, but in general it is understood as something referring to energy, life-flows, and spirit (Liu, 2006). Chinese cosmology considers qi as a precursor to matter with the elemental breaking up of qi forming matter. All matters are made up of qi and levels of purity often indicate the different degrees of existence (Liu, 2006). Humans are perceived as possessing the purest qi with lower animals having less pure qi. Qi breaks down, however it is never consumed or diminished (Ames, 2005). Qi covers the universe with the universe representing the totality of qi being constantly mobilized and changed. The cosmos is therefore perceived as inclusive of qi without having a will or mind of its own (Ames, 2005). Such force covers most aspects of the cosmos, with all matters being connected as a strong organic whole. Chinese cosmology has been considered correlative with cosmologies being understood as frameworks of ideas which manage the universe as an ordered tool, evaluating it in relation to space, time, and motion, and populating it with humans, spirits, gods, and demons (Wang, 2000). Chinese cosmology therefore includes a comprehensive system of connected networks, supported by interlinked pairs (based on Yin-Yang), fours (based on the four directions), fives, (based on five phrases or Wuxing), and

Saturday, January 25, 2020

The Catcher In The Rye 3 :: essays research papers

'Sometimes characters can allow a strong feeling or emotion to dominate their lives.';   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Holden allows the strong feelings and emotions of death, society, school and innocence to dominate his life. Holden is a very sensitive boy who can not ignore his problems, instead he dwells on them. These feelings and emotions are dominant because Holden believes strongly in them.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The strong negative feelings that Holden has for his school and it's community are present because of it's concern for an image. When students do not put in they are expelled to keep the schools high academic rating, This is represented when Holden says 'I got the axe. They give guys the axe quite frequently at Pencey.'; he does not like this as it does not allow students to be individuals and be who they really want to be. Another reason Holden dislikes school so much is because the way teachers have an unfair authority over their students. Mr Spencer used his authority when he read out Holden's paper. holden thought this was rude and said 'I don't think I'll ever forgive him for reading me that crap out loud. I wouldn't've read it out loud to him if he'd written it - I really wouldn't.';   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Holden is not fond of the society that he lives in. It is a superficial society that worships the movies and actors because they portray a type of living that seems wonderful, although it is very false. Holden does not like the movies, he views them as a world that people wish they could be in. An example of this is when Holden says 'If there is one thing I hate, it's the movies.'; Holden also dislikes the actors. He feels that they do not act like common people instead they act 'more like they knew they were celebrities'; and that annoyed him because he can not understand why people admire them so much. He thinks that actors are shallow and create an even bigger misconception on life. Holdens way to cope with society is to wear his red hunting hat in public. This is a way for him to demonstrate that he is different and that he will not conform to the way society and people want him to. This is shown when he calls his hat 'a people shooting hat';. Holden feels that society is too concerned with materialism and appearance and he does not want to bee a part of it and this is why he wears his red hunting hat.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The death of Holden's bother has effected him tremendously.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

How Far Do I Agree That the Hundred Flowers Campaign Was a Trick Essay

Mao travelled the length and breadth of China during the 1950’s. The massive amount of support that he got where ever he went convinced him that he was in touch with the people. He took this opportunity to give some greater freedom of expression to his people and he encouraged constructive criticism of how he and his party were transforming china into a proletarian state. He also gave intellectuals a greater say in debate which was unusual as Mao hated them. It was quite possible that Mao was affected by the attack on Stalin by Khrushchev who publicly said that Stalin was evil and wrong; Mao did not want this backlash himself . erhaps the hundred flowers campaign closed the gap between his people and him, the people would not make a comparison of him and Stalin and it would make him seem that he really cared what the people thought. In early 1957 the party and Mao prepared themselves for criticism which let ordinary every day people be able to say where the CCP had gone wrong. After the initial thoughts of people being classed as anti party were dismissed people flocked in their hundreds to criticise the party top government officials and even as far as Mao himself on the grounds of corruption, inefficiency and not being realistic. After this Mao changes direction and stops the hundred flowers campaign and everything goes backwards it was not a time of expression but a time of great oppression and was replaced altogether with the anti-rightist movement. Those people who had spoken out the most about the regime were forced to retract there statement and many University staff, writers, school teachers and economists some of the finest minds in china were forced to retract there statements and were humiliated in front of their peers and were forced to enter re-education classes where they were broken down and re built with the information about the CCP. Even high ranking government officials were not safe as Zhou Enlai found out when he was forced to say that he had been too slow in putting Mao’s industrial plans into action which was not true, this sent out a message to everyone else saying that no one is safe and forcing everyone to conform. Some people say that it was a trick from the start and the speed in which he retracted the campaign and replaced it with the other one shows that it was a trap from the beginning, they also say that it was a deliberate measure to bring his critics out in to the public and catch them. He could use what they said against them most of the people who did this were intellectuals and the educated who were the most likely to speak up these people also happened to be the two sets of people that Mao didn’t like. It was a movement towards a controlled society in which all expression of opinion had to fit within the government’s criteria. However. People say that Mao was genuinely seeking criticism in which he would turn the peasants against the other classes. By giving scientists and engineers the freedom to express their idea’s’ Mao sought to prevent party bureaucrats from interfering with technical decisions. He wanted intellectuals to expose and attack corruption and bureaucracy. He also wanted peasants, students and workers to speak out and even demonstrate to prevent government bureaucrats from running roughshod over their rights. Another theory is that Mao did it on a whim and he did not set out with an agenda and was the quick thinking of CCP party main officials. In the event Mao’s motives may or may not have been, it was the scale of the criticism that it unleashed that took him aback, he had not realized the size of the problems that his ever so perfect regime had. Whether or not he had set out flush out opponents it had the same outcome, he had discovered the extent of the opposition. He crushed those who he thought were opposed to him. So yes I think that the hundred flowers campaign was a trick used by Mao to flush out opponents. the ruthlessness the he showed can only mean that he set out to do it in the first place.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Performance Enhancing Drugs Should Be Banned in...

In 2013, 12 Major League Baseball players each received fifty game suspensions without pay for using performance enhancing drugs. Big names such as Ryan Braun and Alex Rodriguez were on this list. Testosterone, an illegal substance, is what is found in the performance enhancing drugs. Testosterone increases male characteristics such as body hair, aggression, deepening of the voice, and of course massive muscle growth (â€Å"Steroids† par. 1). Some professional athletes claim to use performance enhancing drugs to recover more quickly from injury; others take them because they have not seen the positive feedback in working out, without the use of the steroids. Steroids may be referred to as roids, juice, hype, or pump and they are†¦show more content†¦Some examples consist of, Ryan Braun, Lance Armstrong, Mark McGwire, Sammy Sosa, Barry Bonds and many more who had a successful life ahead and decided that they wanted more than they already have. Ryan Braun has lost many fans, in addition to losing the respect from the city of Milwaukee, and many baseball fans from around the world that they had previously given him. Braun, however, has reached out to many fans and has made many phone calls apologizing to them for his actions. Braun knows that apologizing will not make up for his actions, however, he also knows that he has to do the right thing by telling people that he has made a mistake. To make up from his actions, he called many of the season ticket holders just to tell them he was sorry and that he made a big mistake. Braun also lost a good friend in Aaron Rodgers. Rodgers wishes that Braun would not of looked him in the face and lied to him (Vandermause par. 2). Rodgers was very disappointed not for just himself, but for all of the Wisconsin sports fanatics out there (2). Braun claimed that they were only used to make his recovery from an injury faster, but having steroids without a prescription is illegal. 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